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Urology: Types of Disease, Causes, Symptoms & Problems

Urology is a part of health care that deals with the treatment of conditions involving the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). It also deals with the male reproductive organs that are able to make babies (penis, testes, scrotum, prostate, etc.). Since health problems in these body parts can happen to anyone, urologic health is important.

Urology Specialist encounters a wide range of clinical problems. There are many urologic conditions and diseases, some last only a short time, while others are long-lasting. Following are some of the diseases identified as common by the AUAF (American Urological Association Foundation)

  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Causes: Problems with nerves that control the bladder, Urinary tract infection, Inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis), Narrowing of the urethra (urethral stricture), Scarring in the bladder neck as a result of previous surgery, Bladder or kidney stones, Cancer of the prostate or bladder

Symptoms: Urgent or Frequent need to urinate, Increased frequency of urination at night, Difficulty starting urination, Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts, Dribbling at the end of urination, Inability to completely empty the bladder, Urinary tract infection, Inability to urinate, Blood in the urine

  • Erectile dysfunction (ED)

Causes: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, low testosterone levels, hormone imbalances, kidney disease, stress, anxiety, depression, relationship problems, certain prescription medications, such as those used to treat high blood pressure or depression, sleep disorders, drug use, consuming too much alcohol, using tobacco products,Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis (MS), damage to the pelvic area through injury or surgery, Peyronie's disease

Symptoms: Trouble getting & keeping an erection, Reduced sexual desire.

  • Urinary Incontinence

Causes: medications, some diuretics, antihypertensive drugs, sleeping tablets, sedatives, and muscle relaxants, alcohol

Symptoms: unintentional release of urine by sneezing, coughing, laughing, exercising or lifting something heavy.

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Causes: Infection of the bladder, infection of the urethra

Symptoms: pelvic pain, increased urge to urinate, pain with urination, blood in the urine

  • Kidney and Ureteral Stones

Causes: Low Urine Volume, high level of calcium in the urine, obesity, Abnormal growth of parathyroid glands, distal renal tubular acidosis,

Symptoms:feeling Intense need to urinate, Urinating more often, burning pain or feeling during urination, Color change in Urine due to blood, Nausea and vomiting, pain at the tip of the penis.

Other Common Urological Conditions are as follows:

Bladder cancer, Interstitial cystitis, Overactive bladder, Bladder prolapse,Prostatitis, Hematuria, Prostate cancer

So, never ignore that could indicate a urological problem. We might not stop to consider that there could be a real problem and you should see a urologist.

If you're in Ranchi area and are looking for exceptional care from some of the top Urologist in Jharkhand, schedule an appointment by calling 0651-7151000 , 9572319889 or by visiting Click Here

Parkinson's Disease | Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors

It's a progressive nervous system disorder, affecting the body movements. Symptoms start gradually with tremors, slowing of movements and stiffness. These patients have an expressionless face, with arms not swinging while walking. Speech becomes soft and slurred. Symptoms worsen gradually as the condition progresses. Unfortunately the disease cannot be cured. Medications improve the symptoms. Sometimes surgery needs to be done to improve the symptoms. Symptoms usually begin on one side of the body and gradually involves the whole body.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?
1. TREMOR: Usually starts in hands or fingers, like rubbing thumb and forefingers, back and forth (pill rolling movement). These tremors may be present at rest also.
2. SLOWING OF MOVEMENTS: This makes simple tasks difficult and time consuming. Walking becomes difficult with a shuffling gait. Sometimes it becomes very difficult to get out of chair.
3. RIGIDITY: Muscles become stiff and movements become painful and the range limited .
4. IMAPAIRED POSTURE: These patients develop a stooped posture with imbalance.
5. LOSS OF AUTOMATIC MOVEMENTS: They have decreased ability to perform subconscious movements like blinking, smiling and swinging of arms.
6. SPEECH CHANGES: Speech becomes soft, slurred and monotonous.
7. WRITING: They usually find it hard to write, with font becoming smaller.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?
It's a degenerative disease. Certain nerve cells break down. The neurons which produce a chemical messenger in the brain (Dopamine) will be lost, resulting in abnormal brain activity leading to the symptoms. In some patients there will be a genetic mutations. Exposure to toxins and other environmental factors can be a cause. LEWY BODIES are specific substances in brain cells, which are microscopic markers. These contain ALPHA SYNUCLEIN an important molecule which is an important area of research in this field.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?
1. AGE: Mostly seen in elderly
2. HEREDITY: Having a close relative with Parkinson’s disease increases the risk.
3. SEX: Males are more affected.
4. TOXINS: Herbicides and pesticides have a role.
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS?
1. THINKING DIFFICULTIES: Cognitive functions are affected leading to dementia which is difficult to treat.
2. DEPRESSION AND EMOTIONAL CHANGES
3. SWALLOWING PROBLEMS: Difficulty in swallowing will lead to pooling of saliva resulting in drooling.
4. CHEWING AND EATING PROBLEMS: The concerned muscles get affected leading to choking and poor nutrition.
5. SLEEP DEPRIVATION
6. BLADDER PROBLEMS: unable to control urination or difficulty in urinating.
7. CONSTIPATION:
8. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGES: There will be a drop in BP in standing posture with the patient feeling dizzy.
9. SMELL DYSFUNCTION: Difficulty in identifying odours
10. FATIGUE:
11. PAIN: Intractable pain not responding to medication.
12. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: Loss of libido.
HOW CAN ONE PREVENT:
1. Regular exercise
2. Consumption of Caffeine: Green tea, coffee and tea.
HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED?
Diagnosis is purely clinical and no imaging is required.
WHAT ARE THE MEDICATIONS?
One should understand that there is no cure for this condition. Medications help in managing problems like walking and tremors.
1. CARBIDOPA - LEVODOPA: This passes into brain and gets converted into dopamine.
2. DOPAMINE LIKE AGENTS: they act like dopamine.
3. MAO INHIBITORS: prevent the breakdown of dopamine in the brain.
4. COMT INHIBITORS: prolong the efficacy of dopamine
CAN ANY SURGERY BE DONE?
DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION: Electrodes are implanted into specific parts of the brain. They are then connected to a generator implanted in the chest. This generator sends impulses to the brain reducing the symptoms of the disease. This is offered only to people with advanced disease, where medical treatment becomes ineffective.